Welcome to Our Unique Qualities: Genes, Traits and Body Types- the fourth lesson in the Classroom Edition of 100% Me.
As we know, through sport, the characteristics of honesty, respect, selfless teamwork, dedication and commitment to a greater cause can be revealed. Sport lessons (good and bad) transcend the playing field, spilling over into the classroom, business and community, and contribute to shaping the character and culture of America’s citizens creating “True Sports for Life.”
A “True Sport for Life” may mean different things to different people. For example, it may include being a good sport, working hard and doing your best, and knowing that you are competing to the best of your natural abilities. It also means respecting yourself, your teammates, your opponent, and your sport.
This curriculum is designed to equip your students with the knowledge to make healthy choices in a variety of situations, help prevent the abuse of steroids and dietary supplements, and provide natural alternatives that leverage innate qualities. Your students will gain:
- Skills for responsible and healthy decision-making
- Healthy alternatives to performance-enhancing drug use
- Skills for smart consumerism regarding dietary supplements and energy drinks
- Heredity and body type knowledge
- Tools for making balanced food choices
The 100% Me curriculum is easily adaptable to a variety of settings, including classrooms of various subject areas, integrated teaching, and even nontraditional classrooms like weight rooms and locker rooms. As a facilitator, be sure to utilize the online components to complement the 100% Me program:
- usadakids.org: An interactive website for students with further information and activities.
- USADA.org/education-tools: A resource for facilitators that includes:
- Pre- and Post-Assessment Tests for each chapter of the 100% Me program
- Student Enrichment Activities to enhance the students experience with the learning material
- Other resources, publications and websites on nutrition, ethics, supplements and more.
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Body types are basically body frames. Some people are born with a “small, petite frame,” others are born with a “heavy, big-boned frame,” and still others are born with body frames that fall in between. Body types depend a great deal on genetics, although diet and exercise can have an impact to some degree.
There are three basic body types:
- Ectomorphs: Thin, wispy people who have a tough time gaining weight or muscle. They have smaller bones and longer limbs with muscles that are thin and long, not bulging.
- Mesomorphs: Strong, stockier people who gain muscle easily when they exercise. They have medium to large bones with thicker muscles.
- Endomorphs: Stout, more rounded people with slower metabolisms that resist losing weight. They tend to have small to medium bones with less defined muscles.
Most people have a combination of two body types. However, some people are distinctly one type. Identifying personal body type(s) can help one understand why even diet and exercise may not be able to change body type. Because of this fact, the emphasis should be placed not on what shape one is, but on whether they are healthy. Weight issues are not about the perfect body, but health and fitness.
Students need to understand this truth as the current culture and media often glamorizes the “ultra-thin” look. Adolescents need to know that body types are different and that there is no such thing as the “perfect” body. This section arms young people with invaluable truths about heredity and body knowledge that can help combat societal pressures to resort to drastic, or unnatural, actions.
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: Growth and Development
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Upon completion of Chapter 4: Our Unique Qualities: Genes, Traits, and Body Types, the student will be able to:
- Explain the relationship of the terms heredity, genes, and traits as they relate to an individual’s unique qualities.
- Demonstrate traits that are unique to their genes, such as tongue roller, finger “v,” or hitchhiker’s thumb.
- Identify their own body type(s) including their natural strengths.
- Explain the relationship between heredity and their body type.
- Describe the phrase “being your physical best” as it relates to varying levels of physical abilities.
- Discuss the Paralympic and Paralympic Hopeful Movement in the Olympic events.
- Describe some of the accommodations or assistance that an individual with special needs may require to attend school and participate in physical activities.
- Compare and contrast the different body types as they relate to body shape, length of arms and legs, development of muscles, and storage of fat.
- Apply the health content in the chapter to the concept of being a “True Sport for Life.”
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- Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings.
- Competency 1.4.1. Identify factors that influence health behaviors
- Competency 1.4.1. Analyze factors that influence health behaviors
- Competency 1.4.1. Identify factors that enhance or compromise health
- Competency 1.4.1. Analyze factors that enhance or compromise health
- Standard 2: Students will analyze the influence of family, peer, culture, media, technology, and other factors on health behaviors.
- Refer to individual state education standards
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As the facilitator, you will lead the discussion and guide the group through the activities identified in the lesson outline. You are not expected to be the “expert.” Your role is to be responsible for encouraging an open, sharing atmosphere.Before the group meets:
1. Read the lesson outline and familiarize yourself with the content in both the Facilitator’s Guide and the Student Workbook.
2. Download and make copies of the “Our Unique Qualities: Genes, Traits and Types” Pre- and Post-Test Assessments which can be downloaded at USADA.org/education-tools
3. Choose extension activities to enhance the student’s experience. These can be found at USADA.org/education-tools
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1. Review the Six Pillars of Character® from CHARACTER COUNTS!® in Chapter 1 of the 100% Me Student Workbook as they relate to becoming a “True Sport for Life.”
- Include the components of steroids, pro-hormones, energy drinks, and dietary supplement use as they relate to the “True Sport for Life” concept.
2. Have the students complete the “Our Unique Qualities: Genes, Traits and Types” Pre-Test Assessment.
3. Ask students to turn to page 22 of their workbook to look at the content of the chapter.
4. Ask students to write their answers to the following questions and then share their responses with the class:
- What do you think the word “unique” and “quality” mean?
- What are genes?
- They are chemical instructions that make people unique, including how they look.
- What do alleles do?
- They decide which traits or characteristics a person will possess.
- How are recessive characteristics received?
- Both parents pass on their recessive alleles.
5. Ask students to turn to the “My Turn” on page 22 of their workbook and complete the questions relating to their physical traits that they inherited from their mother and father.
6. Demonstrate the six traits highlighted on page 23.
7. Have students partner with someone next to them. As students read the description for each trait together, tell them to place an ‘X’ next to the traits they possess and an ‘X’ next to the traits their partner possesses.
8. Following the activity, have students share their traits by a show of hands when the following questions are asked:
- Why is it true that if your thumb bends back at the first joint, then at least one of your parents gave you a dominant allele?
- The thumb bending back is a dominant trait. Thus, if a student has the trait, at least one of their parents had to give them the dominant allele. If both parents gave the recessive allele, the student’s thumb would stay straight.
- Why is it true that if you have a flat tongue, both of your parents gave you a recessive allele?
- The flat tongue is a recessive trait. If either parent gave the student a dominant allele, their tongue would curl.
9. Have students review their charts and describe what kind of alleles they must have received from their families. Compare their traits to the traits of their partner and discuss why they are similar and/or different. Answers will vary, but should include a discussion and comparison of their different or similar alleles. For instance, did they receive primarily dominant or recessive alleles?
10. Move to the “Everybody is Different” section on page 24 of the Student Workbook, and emphasize that genetics make everyone unique, even ‘identical’ twins. Body types are just one of the characteristics inherited from parents:
- Ectomorphs – thin, wispy, small bones, long limbs, hard to gain weight
- Mesomorphs – strong, stocky, able to gain muscle through exercise, medium bones, thick muscles
- Endomorphs – stout, round, slow metabolism, hard to lose weight, small to medium bones, less defined muscles
11. Body type is characterized by the following and may change as a person grows and changes:
- Shape of the body
- Length of arms and legs
- Development of muscle
- Storage of fat
12. Emphasize that fitness and nutrition can change a body slightly, but body type will stay pretty much the same.
13. Ask students to turn to the “My Turn” section on page 24 of the workbook that focuses on their body type. Have the students complete the questions and share their responses if they feel comfortable doing so with the class.
14. Explain the phrase, “being your physical best” to the students.
- Individuals with special needs or disabilities can participate in lifetime physical activity when modifications to space or equipment are made.
- Individuals with special needs or disabilities, different body types, illness, or diseases can become a “True Sport for Life” by making smart decisions that positively impact their health.
- The Americans with Disabilities Act specifies that these individuals will have reasonable accommodations made to them in school and in the workplace.
- The U.S. Paralympics recognize the “True Sport for Life” concept for athletes with disabilities through their leadership in promoting excellence in the lives of people with physical disabilities. Learn more about U.S. Paralympics at usparalympics.org.
15. Describe the “USADA Salutes” section of the workbook on page 25 and the role that athlete plays in being a “True Sport for Life.”
16. Ask students to turn to the “Thinking it Through” section on page 25 of their workbook.
- Review the components of being a “True Sport for Life,” and ask them to think how they would demonstrate the pillars of respect, caring, fairness, and citizenship to individuals with different body types and traits than they have.
- Have students list their responses in each of the areas of their lives.
17. Refer to the websites listed in the workbook on page 25. Show the websites and their interactive capabilities of the websites with the students using the technology equipment in the class/gym.
18. Have students take the “My Turn” inventory on the top of page 26 in the workbook focusing on body types and physical activities. Ask them to pause before they get to the three questions at the bottom.
19. Emphasize that they now know their body type and strongest athletic skills.
20. Help them use this knowledge to find a great sport/activity for them. Have the class take a minute and answer the the three questions at the bottom of the page:
- Which new activities match the students’ natural skills the most?
- What can they do to improve the skills for which they have less natural ability?
- What can you do to improve the skills you already have?
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Review the primary components of the chapter:
- The physical components that determine body type
- The relationship of heredity, genes, and traits
- The definition of “individuals with special needs”
- The definition of “individuals with disabilities"
- The way that students can apply the content of the chapter to become a “True Sport for Life”
Have students complete the Chapter 4 “Our Unique Qualities: Genes, Traits, and Types” post-assessment and score. Compare assessments to the student’s pre-test to determine which items need to be reviewed and modified for future classes. Post-assessments can be found at usada.org/education-tools
.Word(s) of the Day
Multicultural Infusion Strategies
- DISABILITY: An impairment or activity limitation that is physical, sensory, or developmental in nature that may require assistance through medication, therapy, or medical supervision
- GENES: Chemical receptors in the body that determine the unique characteristics of an individual’s appearance and his/her traits
- HEREDITY: The transmission of genes that are transmitted from parent to child
- TRAITS: The physical characteristics such as hair and eye color that are inherited from one’s parents
Investigate the ethnic background of the students in your class – Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific-Islander. Have students investigate the types of traits passed from parents to children based on ethnicity. Investigate questions such as would you expect to see a blue-eyed Hispanic student? Why or why not?Website ReferencesCurriculum Infusion of Additional Subjects
Student Enrichment Activities
- Science/Biology: Partner with the science/biology teacher to more thoroughly investigate the role of genes and heredity particularly as they relate to dominant and recessive genes as well as the role of DNA.
- Language Arts/English: Utilize the Language Arts/English teacher to assist with the My Story of Me: Wearing My Genes Student Enrichment Activity found at usada.org/education-tools. Select several of the best papers to publish in the school newspaper.
Student Enrichment Activities can be found at usada.org/education-tools
Back to Top100% Me Student Workbook
: Download the complete corresponding student workbook..
100% Me: Part 1—Decision Making: Why My Choices Matter
: In this first 100% Me lesson, 6th-8th grade students will gain skills for responsible and healthy decision-making.100% Me: Part 2—Athletics: Improving Your Athletic Performance
: In this second 100% Me lesson, 6th-8th grade students will learn about healthy alternatives to performance-enhancing drug use.100% Me: Part 3—Steroids and Supplements: The Truth About Performance-Enhancing Substances
: In this third 100% Me lesson, 6th-8th grade students will develop skills for smart consumerism regarding dietary supplements and energy drinks.
100% Me: Part 5—Nutrition: Putting My Plate into The Picture
: In this fifth 100% Me lesson, 6th-8th grade students will learn about tools for making balanced food choices.Facilitator’s Curriculum Evaluation
: Your feedback is greatly appreciated to ensuring our programs are changing behaviors and attitudes while increasing students’ knowledge on these important topics.
That's Dope: Part 1—The Edge: Investigating Healthy Performance Strategies
: In this first That's Dope lesson, 9th-12th grade students will look at healthy alternatives to performance-enhancing drugs and effective ways to naturally improve athletic performance without using steroids.That's Dope: Part 2—Over the Counter: Evaluating Dietary Supplements
: In this second That's Dope lesson, 9th-12th grade students will examine dietary supplement manufacturing issues, including the potential for contamination, possible health effects and advertising.USADA True Sport Awards Program
: Teachers, districts and students can enter to win a True Sport Award for their middle or high school program.
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